The treatment principle

The system was developed to address problems at their roots instead of just the symptoms. It achieves this without the use of any harsh chemicals. Listed below are the major problems, root causes and solutions:

  1. Scale Problem:  caused by calcium and magnesium ions which are dissolved in the incoming water supply.  Solutions:  (1)Pre-treatment prevents these ions from entering; (2)Commissioning removes previous build-up; (3)Live time routine treatment keeps system at steady state; and (4)Utilization of harvested rain water, if possible, provides almost-demineralized water for free.
  2. Fouling Problem:  caused by 1. suspended solids, 2. bacteria plus nutrients and 3. residue from chemical reactions.  Solutions:  (1)Continuous filtration; (2)continuous disinfection; and (3)non residue creating chemicals.
  3. Corrosion Problem:  caused by acidic or basic water and iron bacteria.  Solutions:  (1)buffering pH at non corrosive level; (2)suppressing iron bacteria; and (3)introducing a self-limiting protective coating which complements the natural oxide layer.
  4. Bio-growth & Safety Problem:  caused by fast bacteria propagation and usage of toxic chemicals.  Solutions:  (1)continuous disinfection; (2)elimination of toxic chemicals; (3)removal of nutrients (food for bacteria); and (4)removal of suspended solids which can be home for bacteria colonies.

What it does

The treatment will precipitate unwanted dissolved minerals through chelation and sequestration processes. It also removes fouling and dirt from wetted pipe & tube surfaces which can otherwise restrict flow and heat transfer. These unwanted contaminants are then physically filtered away.  Filtration is the most cost effective way to reduce hydraulic wear which is classified as physical deterioration of pipe surface caused by sedimentation and particulates present in the water.

Over time, this process creates a stable water quality.  Corrosion is prevented through (1) keeping the pH at 8.0 to 8.5; and (2) leaving behind a self-limiting protective coating to enhance the natural oxide layer of wetted surfaces. Bacteria is controlled via a low-toxic disinfectant.  Bacteria tests are carried out periodically for monitoring purposes.

All of the Clean CT-01™ ingredients together perform the following 4 key actions to prevent scaling, inhibit corrosion and control bio-growth:

  1. Sequestering and chelating: Chelating agent breaks down the corrosion & scale build-up. Brings contaminants into solution, forming free ions. Sequestrant then neutralizes the free ions, clustering into micro-particles, too small to damage pumps.
  2. Adsorption and Micro-abrasion: Calcium precipitates on adsorptive media and is filtered out.  The micro-abrasive adsorptive media gently polishes the wetted surfaces to further prevent scale formation.
  3. Peptising, emulsifying and dispersing: Brings sludge into suspension, which allows filtering of micro-particles and other unwanted material, leaving the system efficient and clean.
  4. Protective oxide coating: Covers all wetted metal surfaces, protecting against corrosion and healing micro-cracks while maintaining optimal thermal conductivity.

See the illustrations below for visualization of the 4 key actions: